Hello all has anyone here had any experience with the Rna drops being advertised on various alternitave media sites? Any thoughts or experience with this product?

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It seems like its worth the try It looks to be like it could be what is missing in many person's diets! I am on the synergy diet which I am very pleased with. If you ask me they are the best and most complete nutritional supplements out there! 

Here's the link if you want to check it out: http://www.thesynergycompany.com

Hey, thank you for yhe reply  Elon-Str 9  very helpfull indeed.

Sounds incredible, I will look into it more :)

Hi there brothers, good post & feedback.

I have the 30 day free trial bottle of RNA which I have been semi using, not persistently as I too was not sure about them, But thank you  both for the knowledge, I will take them consistently from now on. I thought I might try it in distilled water? may that help saturate myself with it?

Thank You, Wholeness

In lak'ech

Hello Lawson,

From all i have studied on the RNA drops, and personal experience you do not need to add them to anything as they work on a molecular level and do not require any kind of assistance for saturation. The sublingual application is mor than sufficient as long as you follow the instructions of usage.

Just ask Bob.

Thanks,  Deborah Norris however when i posted this i was looking for other non biased opinions by people not involved with the manufacturing of the product.

Rna drops looks a lot like the word ma when written in lower case (rna=ma) 

Ribonucleic acid :

All modern life on Earth uses three different types of biological molecules that each serve critical functions in the cell.  Proteins are the workhorse of the cell and carry out diverse catalytic and structural roles, while the nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, carry the genetic information that can be inherited from one generation to the next.

RNA, which stands for ribonucleic acid, is a polymeric molecule made up of one or more nucleotides. A strand of RNA can be thought of as a chain with a nucleotide at each chain link. Each nucleotide is made up of a base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, typically abbreviated as A, C, G and U), a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. 

The structure of RNA nucleotides is very similar to that of DNA nucleotides, with the main difference being that the ribose sugar backbone in RNA has a hydroxyl (-OH) group that DNA does not. This gives DNA its name: DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. Another minor difference is that DNA uses the base thymine (T) in place of uracil (U). Despite great structural similarities, DNA and RNA play very different roles from one another in modern cells.

RNA plays a central role in the pathway from DNA to proteins, known as the "Central Dogma" of molecular biology. An organism's genetic information is encoded as a linear sequence of bases in the cell's DNA.  During the process known as transcription, a RNA copy of a segment of DNA, or messenger RNA (mRNA), is made.  This strand of RNA can then be read by a ribosome to form a protein.  RNAs also play important roles in protein synthesis, as will be discussed in the ribozyme section, as well as in gene regulation.

Another major difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA is usually found in a double-stranded form in cells, while RNA is typically found in a single-stranded form, as shown in the illustration above.  The lack of a paired strand allows RNA to fold into complex, three-dimensional structures.  RNA folding is typically mediated by the same type of base-base interactions that are found in DNA, with the difference being that bonds are formed within a single strand in the case of RNA, rather than between two strands, in the case of DNA.

Next: Exploring the RNA World.

To learn more about the role of RNA in modern cells, check out Links to Learn More

To download any of the illustrations or animations seen here, visit the Resources for Educators 

http://www.squidoo.com/rna-drops-the-bread-of-living-water

http://informationfarm.blogspot.com/2011/03/ion-rna-drops-bread-of-...

THE DISCOVERY OF RIBOZYMES

The central role for many proteins in a cell is to catalyze chemical reactions that are essential for the cell's survival.  These proteins are known as enzymes.  Until relatively recently, it was thought that proteins were the only biological molecules capable of catalysis.  In the early 1980s, however, research groups led by Sidney Altman and Thomas Cech independently found that RNAs can also act as catalysts for chemical reactions. This class of catalytic RNAs are known as ribozymes, and the finding earned Altman and Cech the 1989 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

The ribozyme isolated by the Cech group, known as the Tetrahymena ribozyme, is shown in the box to the right. It acts to cut a longer strand of RNA into two smaller segments.

THE RNA WORLD HYPOTHESIS

The discovery of ribozymes supported a hypothesis, known as the RNA World Hypothesis, that earlier forms of life may have relied solely on RNA to store genetic information and to catalyze chemical reactions.  This hypothesis was proposed independently by Carl Woese, Francis Crick and Leslie Orgel in the 1960s -- decades before the discovery of ribozymes -- and soon after the double-helical structure of DNA was determined. According to the RNA World Hypothesis, life later evolved to use DNA and proteins due to RNA's relative instability and poorer catalytic properties, and gradually, ribozymes became increasingly phased out.

Perhaps the strongest evidence for the RNA World Hypothesis is the fact that the ribosome, a large molecular complex that assembles proteins, is a ribozyme.  Although the ribosome is made up of both RNA and protein components, structural and biochemical analyses revealed that the mechanisms central for translation (the process of assembling a peptide chain based on a RNA sequence) is catalyzed by RNA, not protein. This suggests that the use of RNA by early lifeforms to carry out chemical reactions preceded the use of proteins.

Rollover the image of the ribosome on the left to compare the structure with and without its protein components.

Next: Explore the role of ribozymes in protocells.

To learn more about ribozymes and the RNA World Hypothesis, check out Links to Learn More

To download any of the illustrations or animations seen here, visit the Resources for Educators section.

RNA ON THE EARLY EARTH

According to the RNA World Hypothesis, RNA was a key molecule that was utilized by the earliest life on Earth to store genetic information and to catalyze chemical reactions. This raises the question, however, of how RNA formed under prebiotic conditions on the early Earth. In fact, the issue of the complete synthesis of RNA nucleotides has been a major stumbling block for the RNA World Hypothesis. The sugar found in the backbone of both DNA and RNA, ribose, has been particularly problematic, as the most prebiotically plausible chemical reaction schemes have typically yielded only a small amount of ribose mixed with a diverse assortment of other sugar molecules.

These difficulties have led some scientists to hypothesize that RNA was preceded by other RNA-like molecules that were more stable and readily synthesized under prebiotic conditions. Based on analyses of meteorites, such as the Murchison meteorite, other scientists contest that some components of RNA may have formed in space and arrived on Earth rather than being formed de novo on the Earth.

Recent research has shown, however, that RNA nucleotides can be formed without the need for pure ribose. Importantly, the starting materials for the reaction can utilize starting materials that are considered prebiotically plausible, and provide high yields of RNA nucleotides. These results have greatly bolstered the argument that RNA nucleotides may have been found in abundance on the early Earth.

RNA nucleotides may have polymerized into polymers with the help of clay particles such as montmorillonite. This animation is based on research done by James Ferris' lab at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. This animation shows the process of template-directed polymerization. This reaction is made possible by chemically activating the nucleotides, thereby increasing their reactivity. A theoretical replicase ribozyme is shown replicating another replicase (which is unfolded). The newly formed duplex can undergo strand separation and refolding under the correct conditions. The ribozyme structure is actually a class I RNA ligase (PDB #1QXI ), isolated by the Bartel group at MIT.
PREBIOTIC RNA POLYMERIZATION

Assuming the presence of pools of RNA nucleotides, how did long strands of RNA form on the early Earth? Ribozyme function is likely to require strands of RNAs that are composed of at least 30-40 nucleotides. Research from James Ferris' group at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute suggests that the formation of long strands of RNA may have been catalyzed by clays such as montmorillonite. The charged clay surface attracts the nucleotides and the increased local concentration of nucleotides causes bond formation between nucleotides, forming a polymer of RNA (illustrated in the animation on left).

Another possibility is that strands of RNA could have formed in salty ice water. David Deamer's lab at the University of California at Santa Cruz has found that the process of freezing a dilute solution of chemically activated RNA nucleotides causes the nucleotides to become concentrated as ice crystals form, eventually resulting in the formation of strands of RNA.

PREBIOTIC RNA REPLICATION

Even in the absence of enzymatic catalysts, single-stranded RNAs may have been able to copy strands of RNA through template-directed polymerization. This process is shown in the animation on the left, and is based on experiments performed in Jack Szostak's Lab (MGH/Harvard) using chemically activated nucleotides.

This process of non-enzymatic replication, however, is likely to have been slow and error-prone. Eventually, this mechanism of RNA replication is likely to have been replaced by a more reliable catalyst, such as a ribozyme. Scientists hypothesize that a ribozyme that was capable of making copies of other RNAs, called a replicase, evolved very early in life's history.

The animation on the lower left shows a theoretical replicase copying a template strand of RNA. While the structure of the replicase shown in the animation is based on an existing ribozyme that is capable of carrying out the basic steps of a replication reaction, a true replicase that is capable of copying an RNA of its own length has not yet been isolated in a laboratory. It is also possible that a replicase could be built from multiple short pieces of RNA rather than a single long strand.

Under the proper temperature and salt conditions, double-stranded RNA can undergo strand separation. Since the two strands are complements of each other (and not exact duplicates), only one of the two strands will be able to refold into an active replicase. The other strand can act as a template for further rounds of replication to create more replicases.

Next: The role of membranes in the protocell.

To learn more about RNA, check out Links to Learn More.

To download any of the illustrations or animations seen here, visit the Resources for Educators section.

MEMBRANE LIPIDS OF THE PAST AND PRESENT

Modern cells use lipid membranes to selectively control what molecules may enter and exit the cell.  The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which consist of a hydrophobic (or “water-fearing”) tail and a hydrophilic (or “water-loving”) head group.  When phospholipids are placed in water, the molecules spontaneously arrange such that the tails are shielded from the water, resulting in the formation of membrane structures such as bilayers, vesicles, and micelles (illustrated on the right).

Earlier forms of life probably needed a membrane compartment for many of the same reasons that modern cells do: to keep molecules that are important for cellular growth and survival readily accessible, and to keep unneeded or potentially harmful molecules outside of the cell.  Rather than being made up of phospholipids, however, early membranes may have formed from fatty acids.  Similar to phospholipids, fatty acids have a hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head, and can thus form the same types of structures, such as bilayers, vesicles and micelles, but are structurally much simpler and may have formed more readily in a prebiotic environment.

WHY LIFE NEEDS A MEMBRANE COMPARTMENT

Why are membranes so important for the RNA World?  An early RNA replicase probably would not have a built-in way of differentiating between a replicase or non-replicase sequence, and as a result, will make a copy of any RNA that happens to be close by.  Without some means of separating the replicases from the non-replicases, the population of replicases is unlikely to grow and prosper.  This issue can be resolved if the replicases are placed within a compartment, such as a vesicle, which can physically separate the replicases from other RNAs. This concept is illustrated in the animation on the left.

In addition, a membrane may have played an important role in the early cell's ability to store energy in the form of a chemical gradient. In modern eukaryotic cells, the mitochondria, often called the "cellular powerhouse" uses an internal chemical gradient to create energy-storing molecules known as ATP.

FORMING FATTY ACIDS ON THE EARLY EARTH

How might fatty acids have formed on the early Earth?  Some scientists have proposed that hydrothermal vents may have been sites where prebiotically important molecules, including fatty acids, were formed.  The animation on the left shows a theoretical scenario in which fatty acids are formed along the face of a geyser. Research has shown that some minerals can catalyze the stepwise formation of hydrocarbon tails of fatty acids from hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases -- gases that may have been released from hydrothermal vents. Fatty acids of various lengths are eventually released into the surrounding water.

The fatty acids produced in this manner would only be found in low concentrations.  Relatively high concentrations of fatty acids are required, however, to form higher order structures such as micelles and vesicles.  Pools of water may have slowly accumulated fatty acids through cycles of shinkage by evaporation and growth by the delivery of additional dilute fatty acid solution.  It is also possible that droplets of fatty acids may have become aerosolized, as shown in the animation on the left, allowing the dry fatty acid particulate to travel long distances away from its original site of synthesis. Over time, small pools of water may have accumulated high concentrations of fatty acids.

STUDYING FATTY ACID VESICLES IN THE LAB

The Szostak lab at Massachusetts General Hospital has conducted numerous studies to examine how fatty acid vesicles may form, grow and divide.

At relatively low concentrations, fatty acids will form micelles, which can be thought of as tiny spheres of fatty acids, organized such that the tails of the fatty acid point towards the center of the sphere.   Research in the Szostak lab has shown that at higher concentrations and under the appropriate pH conditions, fatty acids micelles can form vesicles.  The process by which this is thought to occur is shown in the animation on the left. 

The Szostak lab has also shown that vesicle formation may also be catalyzed by the clay montmorillonite, which has also been found to catalyze the formation of strands of RNA from single nucleotides (illustrated in the nucleic acidssection). Clays such as montmorillonite may very well have been the key to the formation of the first protocells.

Once formed, fatty acid vesicles are highly stable, and appear outwardly unchanging over the course of days or even months.  At a molecular level, however, fatty acids are extremely dynamic, and are constantly entering and exiting the vesicle bilayer, as well as flipping between the inner and outer leaflet of the membrane.  Phospholipids, on the other hand, do not typically undergo flipping.  The dynamic qualities of fatty acids are illustrated in the animation to the left.

Fatty acid flipping may play an important role in the ability for some small molecules, such as RNA nucleotides, to enter the vesicle.  This process is illustrated in the animation on the left.  If the nucleotides are incorporated into a strand of RNA, they become trapped inside the vesicle, since long polymers of RNA are unlikely to be able to use the same mechanism to pass through the fatty acid membrane.

Phospholipid bilayers, on the other hand, are relatively impermeable to molecules such as nucleotides, and require special transporters to allow their passage through the membrane.

How do fatty acid vesicles grow? Research in the Szostak lab has shown that when fatty acid micelles are added to a solution of pre-formed vesicles, the vesicles grow rapidly. A molecular model of this observation is shown on the left. Vesicle growth is thought occur first through the formation of a micelle shell around a vesicle.  Individual fatty acids are transferred from the micelles to the outer leaflet of the vesicle membrane.  Fatty acids may then flip from the outer leaflet to the inner leaflet (as illustrated in a previous animation on fatty acid dynamics), which allows the membrane bilayer to grow evenly.

Next: Putting it all together in a protocell.

To learn more about membranes and fatty acids, check out Links to Learn More

To download any of the illustrations or animations seen here, visit the Resources for Educators section.

The theoretical protocell shown in the image on the right is made up of only two molecular components, a RNA replicase and a fatty acid membrane.  An extremely pared down and simple version of a cell, the protocell is nonetheless capable of growth, replication, and evolution.  Although a working version of a protocell has not yet been achieved in a laboratory setting, the goal appears well within reach.

The animation below illustrates the protocell life cycle.  The protocell includes two or more RNA replicases which are able to make copies of each other. Concurrent with RNA replication, the vesicle membrane grows through the addition of fatty acids from micelle collisions.  This causes the surface area of the protocell to increase while the volume remains constant, resulting in the elongation and increased instability of the protocell membrane.  The membrane eventually divides, forming two daughter protocells, with the RNA replicases randomly divided between them.

Every once in a while, a replicase will make a mistake, and a mutant replicase RNA is produced.  Usually, this mutation will result in a poorer replicase, if catalytic activity is retained at all.  Rarely, however, a better replicase could be formed – a replicase that might be able to copy RNAs faster, for example. Even more rarely, a RNA will be introduced to a protocell (by mutations or some other means) that has a new, different catalytic activity, such as the ability to catalyze the formation of fatty acids.  These protocells with faster replicases or new functional ribozymes will have an advantage over other protocells by being able to grow and divide faster.  Since all protocells in a population will be competing for resources (such as RNA nucleotides and fatty acids), those that can grow and divide more quickly will use up more of the resources, causing the “extinction” of slower-dividing protocell species.

Go back : Explore a timeline of the evolution of Life on Earth.

To learn more about protocells, check out Links to Learn More

To download any of the illustrations or animations seen here, visit the Resources for Educators section.

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